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|Title:||The thermodynamics of metabolism, cardiovascular performance and exercise, in health and diabetes: The objective of clinical markers|
|Keywords:||Thermodynamics;metabolism;cardiovascular performance;Exercise;Heat;Glucose;ATP;Insulin;Type 2 diabetes|
|Citation:||Tuscany Endocrinology and Metabolism Conference, 4 – 6 April 2013, Pisa, Italy|
|Abstract:||Extensive experience in UK National Health Service metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes clinics highlights the need for convenient clinical marker(s) which can be readily used to indicate the success or otherwise of alternative therapies. In this paper we study the metabolic context of the healthy and diseased states, which points to the haemodynamics being a possible key in identifying candidate markers. Human metabolism relates to two elemental thermodynamic systems, the individual cell and the human body in its entirety. The fundamental laws of thermodynamics apply to humans, animals, and their individual cells for both healthy and diseased conditions. as they are to classic heat engines. In compliance with the second law enhanced levels of heat are generated under exercise, heat itself being another factor modulating the cardiovascular response to physical exercise. Nutrients and oxygen uptake occurs via the digestive system and lungs, respectively, leading to ATP production by the established metabolic pathways: this is controlled by insulin. These are then delivered to the cells via the haemodynamic system to satisfy local metabolic need. The supply and demand of oxygen are finely regulated, in part, via oxygen-dependent release of ATP from the circulating erythrocytes. Energy supply and demand are regulated to sustain muscle activity resulting in the body’s output of measurable thermodynamic work—i.e. exercise. Recently a dynamic pathway model allowing quantification of ATP release from the erythrocytes and its contribution to oxygen supply regulation has been published. However, metabolic uptake is well known to be greatly affected by disease such as the highly prevalent diabetes type 2 with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction having mechanistic roles. In 2010, over 25% of residents above 65 in the USA had diabetes 2. The complexity of the metabolic pathways means that monitoring of patient-specific treatment would be beneficial from a diabetic marker which may be haemodynamic-related and traceable via the local fluid dynamics.|
|Appears in Collections:||Dept of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering Research Papers|
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