Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title:||Study of acute myeloid leukaemia with known chromosomal translocations|
|Keywords:||Copy number loss;Proliferation;Immunifish;Illumina array;DNA probe|
|Abstract:||Acute myeloid leukaemia (“AML”) is a clonal disease characterised by increased, uncontrolled abnormal white blood cells and the accumulation of leukaemia immature cells in the bone marrow and bloodstream. Chromosomal rearrangements have been detected in almost half of AML cases. It has been proven that the chromosomal rearrangements constitute a marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of AML and have therapeutic consequences. The discovery of these rearrangements has led to a new World Health Organization (“WHO”) classification system. However, small regions of cryptic chromosomal rearrangements have been identified among these cases. Such cryptic rearrangements can be explained by the identification of small regions which cannot be found by conventional chromosome banding techniques. Moreover, approximately 50% of AML cases have been found with normal karyotypes. The improvement of cytogenetic techniques, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (“FISH”) and single nucleotide polymorphism (“SNP”) platforms, have allowed the detection of small rearranged regions (such as copy number changes) both in normal and abnormal karyotype AML. This study identifies: (i) cryptic chromosomal translocations in leukaemia cells of AML patients; (ii) DNA copy number changes in patients with known chromosomal translocations; and (iii) the proliferating state of leukemic cells harbouring chromosomal abnormalities within a series of patients. In the initial study, the FISH technique was performed on 7 AML patient samples to validate a novel three colour probe for the detection of t(7; 12). The results demonstrated that the new three-colour FISH approach used in this study has enabled the detection of a cryptic t(7;12) translocation as part of a complex rearrangement in one patient previously been described as having t(7;16) and ETV6-HLXB9 fusion transcript at the molecular level. To date there are only two cases of a cryptic t(7; 12) translocation reported in the literature. Additionally, the new three-colour FISH approach also enabled identification of t(7; 12) in a new seven year-old AML patient (the first case of childhood leukaemia with an onset after infancy to be found positive for t(7; 12)). In the second study the FISH technique was used to validate three colour probe sets for the detection of 7(q22-q31) and 7(q22-q36.1) regions on several myeloid cell lines. The results indicate that the probes found chromosome 7 rearrangements in myeloid cell lines with complex rearrangements. The three colour probe sets enabled detection of a new rearrangement in the k562 cell line, described as a duplication of 7q36 region, followed by intrachromosomal insertion of long arm material into the short arm of chromosome 7. The intrachromosomal insertion identified in k562 cell line is an uncommon form of chromosomal rearrangement in myeloid leukaemia which has not been previously reported. In the third study, the Illumina BeadArray approach was used to assess copy number alterations (“CNAs”) and copy number loss of hertrozygosity (“CN-LOH”) regions in 22 AML patients samples with inv(16)(p13;q22) and t(8;21)(q22;q22) rearrangements. In order to distinguish between true CNAs and false-positive findings as well as to verify whether CNAs are present in the same clone harbouring inv (16), FISH was used on fixed chromosome and cell suspensions from the same patients. The results showed a low number of copy number losses and copy number gains in 17 (77.27%) out of 22 cases, with an average of 1.86 CNAs per case as well as copy neutral-LOH with an average of 6.7% per patient. Furthermore, interphase FISH was carried out on four cases showing a 7q36.1 deletion, 4q35.1 deletion, 16.13.11 deletion and 8q24.21-q24.3 gain identified by array. The FISH results confirmed CNAs in most cases while CNA was not confirmed in one patient. Moreover, the FISH data analysis showed that the CNAs were found in both cells without inv (16) and cells harbouring the inv (16) rearrangement. In the final study, indirect immunofluorescence (IF) was used to determine the ki67 staining patterns in 8 stimulated and unstimulated peripheral blood samples and k562 cell lines. The results showed a high percentage of ki67 positive staining in the stimulated samples in comparison with unstimulated samples, which showed a low percentage of ki67 positive staining. In addition, a high percentage of proliferating cells were detected in the k562 cell line. ImmunoFISH was performed on five different patient samples and leukaemia cell lines using specific probes in the regions of interest to detect the chromosomal abnormalities and using the ki67 antibody to assess the proliferation state of the cells. The results showed that the proliferation state of the cells carrying chromosomal abnormalities in two patients was higher than the proliferation state of the cells carrying abnormalities in three patients; in other words, most of the cells carrying abnormalities were proliferating in two cases and non-proliferating in three cases.|
|Description:||This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University|
|Appears in Collections:||Civil Engineering|
Dept of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering Theses
Items in BURA are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.