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Title: High efficiency smart voltage regulating module for green mobile computing
Authors: Tapou, Monaf Sabri
Advisors: Al-Raweshidy, H
Keywords: Voltage regulating module;Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling;Microcontroller;Cross current prevention
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Brunel University School of Engineering and Design PhD Theses
Abstract: In this thesis a design for a smart high efficiency voltage regulating module capable of supplying the core of modern microprocessors incorporating dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVS) capability is accomplished using a RISC based microcontroller to facilitate all the functions required to control, protect, and supply the core with the required variable operating voltage as set by the DVS management system. Normally voltage regulating modules provide maximum power efficiency at designed peak load, and the efficiency falls off as the load moves towards lesser values. A mathematical model has been derived for the main converter and small signal analysis has been performed in order to determine system operation stability and select a control scheme that would improve converter operation response to transients and not requiring intense computational power to realize. A Simulation model was built using Matlab/Simulink and after experimenting with tuned PID controller and fuzzy logic controllers, a simple fuzzy logic control scheme was selected to control the pulse width modulated converter and several methods were devised to reduce the requirements for computational power making the whole system operation realizable using a low power RISC based microcontroller. The same microcontroller provides circuit adaptations operation in addition to providing protection to load in terms of over voltage and over current protection. A novel circuit technique and operation control scheme enables the designed module to selectively change some of the circuit elements in the main pulse width modulated buck converter so as to improve efficiency over a wider range of loads. In case of very light loads as the case when the device goes into standby, sleep or hibernation mode, a secondary converter starts operating and the main converter stops. The secondary converter adapts a different operation scheme using switched capacitor technique which provides high efficiency at low load currents. A fuzzy logic control scheme was chosen for the main converter for its lighter computational power requirement promoting implementation using ultra low power embedded controllers. Passive and active components were carefully selected to augment operational efficiency. These aspects enabled the designed voltage regulating module to operate with efficiency improvement in off peak load region in the range of 3% to 5%. At low loads as the case when the computer system goes to standby or sleep mode, the efficiency improvent is better than 13% which will have noticeable contribution in extending battery run time thus contributing to lowering the carbon footprint of human consumption.
Description: This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University.
Appears in Collections:Electronic and Computer Engineering
Dept of Electronic and Computer Engineering Theses

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