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dc.contributor.advisorScrimshaw, M-
dc.contributor.authorConstantino, Carlos-
dc.descriptionThis thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel Universityen_US
dc.description.abstractThis research examined the suitability of the biotic ligand model (BLM) approach for assessing environmental risk in surface waters consisting substantially of treated sewage effluent, and the implications of its use within a compliance-based regulatory framework aimed at controlling discharges of metals into the aquatic environment. The results from a series of Daphnia magna acute copper toxicity assays conducted in an undiluted sewage effluent medium demonstrated that BLMs could predict an acute copper toxicity endpoint with suitable accuracy. This finding contributes further support for the use of BLMs for assessing risk and compliance, even in effluent impacted waters. Additional studies, however, also demonstrated that effluent derived organic matter contained a greater concentration of metal complexing ligands per milligram of dissolved organic carbon than organic matter derived from natural sources. This indicates that effluent derived organic matter offers greater protection against the potentially adverse effects from metals than the protection offered by organic matter derived from natural sources. These studies also demonstrated that improvements in the accuracy of BLM forecasts were achievable by taking these differences into account which, from a regulatory perspective, is also desirable since this enhances the environmental relevance of compliance criteria. These findings therefore justify that consideration for the influence of site-specific metal complexation characteristics should included as part of the regulatory framework within which BLMs will be applied. The implication of the BLM approach for Severn Trent Water Limited is that, as currently proposed, the approach will require a reduction in the concentration of copper in the effluent discharges for a small number of wastewater treatment works (9), whereas for zinc, concentration reductions may be required for numerous treatment works (126).en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipSevern Trent Water and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)en_US
dc.publisherBrunel University Institute for the Environment PhD Theses-
dc.subjectDaphnia magnaen_US
dc.subjectRegulatory complianceen_US
dc.titleThe effect of sewage effluent on trace metal speciation: implications for the biotic ligand model approachen_US
Appears in Collections:Environment
Institute for the Environment

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