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Title: A Higher-Order Energy Expansion to Two-Dimensional Singularly Neumann Problems
Authors: Winter, M
Wei, J
Yeung, W-K
Keywords: Higher Order Expansions;Singularly Perturbed Problem
Issue Date: 2005
Publisher: IOS Press
Citation: Asymptotic Analysis 34 (2005), 75-110
Abstract: Of concern is the following singularly perturbed semilinear elliptic problem \begin{equation*} \left\{ \begin{array}{c} \mbox{${\epsilon}^2\Delta u -u+u^p =0$ in $\Omega$}\\ \mbox{$u>0$ in $\Omega$ and $\frac{\partial u}{\partial \nu}=0$ on $\partial \Omega$}, \end{array} \right. \end{equation*} where $\Omega$ is a bounded domain in ${\mathbf{R}}^N$ with smooth boundary $\partial \Omega$, $\epsilon>0$ is a small constant and $1< p<\left(\frac{N+2}{N-2}\right)_+$. Associated with the above problem is the energy functional $J_{\epsilon}$ defined by \begin{equation*} J_{\epsilon}[u]:=\int_{\Omega}\left(\frac{\epsilon^2}{2}{|\nabla u|}^2 +\frac{1}{2}u^2 -F(u)\right)dx \end{equation*} for $u\in H^1(\Omega)$, where $F(u)=\int_{0}^{u}s^p ds$. Ni and Takagi (\cite{nt1}, \cite{nt2}) proved that for a single boundary spike solution $u_{\epsilon}$, the following asymptotic expansion holds: \begin{equation*} (1) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ J_{\epsilon}[u_{\epsilon}]=\epsilon^{N} \left[\frac{1}{2}I[w]-c_1 \epsilon H(P_{\epsilon})+o(\epsilon)\right], \end{equation*} where $I[w]$ is the energy of the ground state, $c_1 >0$ is a generic constant, $P_{\epsilon}$ is the unique local maximum point of $u_{\epsilon}$ and $H(P_{\epsilon})$ is the boundary mean curvature function at $P_{\epsilon}\in \partial \Omega$. Later, Wei and Winter (\cite{ww3}, \cite{ww4}) improved the result and obtained a higher-order expansion of $J_{\epsilon}[u_{\epsilon}]$: \begin{equation*} (2) \ \ \ \ \ \ J_{\epsilon}[u_{\epsilon}]=\epsilon^{N} \left[\frac{1}{2}I[\omega]-c_{1} \epsilon H(P_{\epsilon})+\epsilon^2 [c_2(H(P_\epsilon))^2 +c_{3} R(P_\epsilon)]+o(\epsilon^2)\right], \end{equation*} where $c_2$ and $c_3>0$ are generic constants and $R(P_\epsilon)$ is the scalar curvature at $P_\epsilon$. However, if $N=2$, the scalar curvature is always zero. The expansion (2) is no longer sufficient to distinguish spike locations with same mean curvature. In this paper, we consider this case and assume that $ 2 \leq p <+\infty$. Without loss of generality, we may assume that the boundary near $P\in\partial\Om$ is represented by the graph $ \{ x_2 = \rho_{P} (x_1) \}$. Then we have the following higher order expansion of $J_\epsilon[u_\epsilon]:$ \begin{equation*} (3) \ \ \ \ \ J_\epsilon [u_\epsilon] =\epsilon^N \left[\frac{1}{2}I[w]-c_1 \epsilon H({P_\epsilon})+c_2 \epsilon^2(H({P_\epsilon}))^2 ] +\epsilon^3 [P(H({P_\epsilon}))+c_3S({P_\epsilon})]+o(\epsilon^3)\right], \end{equation*} where $ H(P_\ep)= \rho_{P_\ep}^{''} (0)$ is the curvature, $P(t)=A_1 t+A_2 t^2+A_3 t^3$ is a polynomial, $c_1$, $c_2$, $c_3$ and $A_1$, $A_2$,$A_3$ are generic real constants and $S(P_\epsilon)= \rho_{P_\ep}^{(4)} (0)$. In particular $c_3<0$. Some applications of this expansion are given.
Appears in Collections:Dept of Mathematics Research Papers
Mathematical Sciences

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