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|Title:||Chronic effects assessment and plasma concentrations of the b-blocker propranolol in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)|
|Keywords:||β-Blocker;Fathead minnow;Pharmaceutical;Propranolol;Fish plasma concentration|
|Citation:||Aquatic Toxicology. 95 (3) 195-202|
|Abstract:||The presence of many human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is now a worldwide concern, yet little is known of the chronic effects that these bioactive substances may be having on aquatic organisms. Propranolol, a non-specific beta adrenoreceptor blocker (beta-blocker), is used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease in humans. Propranolol has been found in surface waters worldwide at concentrations ranging from 12 to 590ng/L. To test the potential for ecologically relevant effects in fish in receiving waters, short-term (21 days) adult reproduction studies were conducted, in which fathead minnows were exposed to nominal concentrations of propranolol hydrochloride [CAS number 318-98-9] ranging from 0.001 to 10mg/L (measured concentrations typically from 78 to 130%). Exposure of fish to 3.4mg/L (measured) over 3 days caused 100% mortality or severe toxicity requiring euthanasia. The most sensitive endpoints from the studies were a decrease in hatchability (with regard to the number of days to hatch) and a concentration-related increase in female gonadal somatic index (GSI), giving LOEC(hatchability) and LOEC(female GSI) values of 0.1mg/L. Concentration-related decreases in weights of male fish were also observed, with LOEC(male wet weight value) of 1.0mg/L, and the LOEC(reproduction) value was 1.0mg/L. Collectively, these data do not suggest that propranolol was acting as a reproductive toxin. Plasma concentrations of propranolol in male fish exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0mg/L were 0.34 and 15.00mg/L, respectively, which constitutes 436 and 1546% of measured water concentrations. These compare with predicted concentrations of 0.07 and 0.84mg/L, and thus to a degree support the use of partition coefficient models for predicting concentrations in plasma in fish. In addition, propranolol plasma concentrations in fish exposed to water concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0mg/L were greater than the human therapeutic plasma concentration and hence these data very strongly support the fish plasma model proposed by Huggett et al. [Huggett, D.B., Cook, J.C., Ericson, J.F., Williams, R.T., 2003a. A theoretical model for utilizing mammalian pharmacology and safety data to prioritize potential impacts of human pharmaceuticals to fish. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 9, 1789-1799].|
|Appears in Collections:||Biological Sciences|
Dept of Life Sciences Research Papers
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