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|Title:||Design of rate-adaptive MAC and medium aware routing protocols for multi-rate, multi-hop wireless networks|
|Publisher:||Brunel University School of Engineering and Design PhD Theses|
|Abstract:||The IEEE 802.11 standard conformant wireless communication stations have multi-rate transmission capability. To achieve greater communication efficiency, multi-rate capable stations use rateadaptation to select appropriate transmission rate according to variations in the channel quality. The thesis presents two rate-adaptation schemes, each belonging to one of the two classes of rateadaptation schemes i.e.(1) the frame-transmission statistics based schemes, and (2) Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) based, closed loop schemes. The SNR-based rate-adaptation scheme, proposed in this thesis uses a novel mechanism of delivering a receiver’s feedback to a transmitter; without requiring any modification in the standard frames as suggested by existing research. The frame-transmissionstatistics based rate adaptation solution uses an on-demand incremental strategy for selecting a rate-selection threshold. This solution is based on a cross-layer communication framework, where the rate-adaptation module uses information to/from the Application layer along with relevant information from the Medium Access Control (MAC) sub-layer. The proposed solutions are highly responsive when compared with existing rate-adaptation schemes; responsiveness is one of the key factors in the design of such protocols. The novel feedback mechanism makes it possible to achieve frame-loss differentiation with just three frames, avoiding the use of Request To Send/ Clear To Send (RTS/CTS) frames and further delays in this process. Performance tests have affirmed that the proposed rate-adaptation schemes are energy efficient; with efficiency up to 19% in specific test scenarios. In terms of throughput and frame loss-differentiation mechanisms, the proposed schemes have shown significantly better performance.Routing protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) use broadcast frames during the route discovery process. The 802.11 mandates the use of different transmission rates for broadcast and unicast (data-) frames. In many cases it causes creation of communication gray zones, where stations which are marked as ‘reachable neighbours’ using the broadcast frames (using lower transmission rate) are not accessible during normal, unicast communication (mainly at a higher rate). Similarly, higher device density, interference and mobility cause variable medium access delays. The IEEE 802.11e introduces four different MAC level queues for four access categories, maintaining service priority within the queues; which implies that frames from a higher priority queue are serviced more frequently than those belonging to lower priority queues. Such an enhancement at the MAC sub-layer introduces uneven queuing delays. Conventional routing protocols are unaware of such MAC specific constraints and as a result these factors are not considered which result in severe performance deterioration. To meet such challenges, the thesis presents a medium aware distance vector (MADV) routing protocol for MANETs. MADV uses MAC and physical layer (PHY) specific information in the route metric and maintains a separate route per-AC-per-destination in its routing tables. The MADV-metric can be incorporated into various routing rotocols and its applicability is determined by the possibility of provision of MAC dependent arameters that are used to determine the hop-by-hop MADV-metric values. Simulation tests and omparison with existing MANET protocols demonstrate the effectiveness of incorporating the medium dependent parameters and show that MADV is significantly better in terms of end-to-end delay and throughput.|
|Description:||This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University.|
|Appears in Collections:||Electronic and Computer Engineering|
Dept of Electronic and Computer Engineering Theses
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