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Title: Psychological effects of music tempi during exercise
Authors: Karageorghis, CI
Jones, L
Stuart, DP
Issue Date: 2008
Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag
Citation: International Journal of Sports Medicine. 29(7): pp. 613-619 (2008)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music tempi on intrinsic motivation, flow, and music tempo preference during longduration exercise (~ 26 min). Subjects (n = 29) selected the music of a single artist then walked at 70% of maximum heart rate reserve (maxHRR) on a treadmill under three experimental conditions (medium tempi, fast tempi, and mixed tempi) and a no-music control. A tempo preference item, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and Flow State Scale-2 were completed after each trial. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model (Gender × Condition) ANOVA and MANOVA. The Gender × Condition interaction was nonsignificant in both analyses (p > 0.05). Contrary to expectations, higher preference scores were recorded for medium tempi than for mixed tempi (means: 7.8 ± 1.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.1). The medium tempi music also yielded the highest levels of intrinsic motivation (p < 0.001). Pairwise comparisons showed that interest-enjoyment was higher for medium tempi when compared to mixed tempi, 95% CI = 1.80–8.48, p = 0.001, and that each of the experimental conditions yielded higher scores than the no-music control. Also, pressure-tension was lower for medium tempi compared to fast tempi, 95% CI = – 3.44–0.19, p = 0.022, and for both medium and mixed tempi compared to control (95% CI = – 5.33–2.89, p = 0.000; 95% CI = – 4.24–0.64, p = 0.004). A main effect was found for global flow (p = 0.000) with the highest mean score evident in the medium tempi condition (14.6 ± 1.5). Follow-up comparisons indicated that the medium tempi condition yielded higher flow scores than the control, 95% CI = 1.25–3.60, p = .000, as did fast tempi, 95% CI = 0.89–3.14, p = 0.000, and mixed tempi, 95% CI = 1.36–3.76, p = 0.000. It was concluded that a medium tempi music program was the most appropriate for an exercise intensity of 70%maxHRR.
ISSN: 0172-4622
Appears in Collections:Sport
Dept of Life Sciences Research Papers

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