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Title: Circulating microvesicles: responses to exercise and heat stress, and their impact upon human endothelial cells
Authors: Wilhelm Neto, Eurico Nestor
Advisors: Rakobowchuk, M
González-Alonso, J
Keywords: Microparticles;Vascular endothelium;Exercise intensity;Human umbilical vein endothelial cells;Angiogenesis
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Brunel University London
Abstract: Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) are naturally released into the human circulation and an increase in the concentration of certain MV populations have been observed after exercise. However, the MV appearance dynamics, the exercise-related stimuli that induce their formation and physiological relevance are poorly understood. Hence, the overall objectives of this thesis were to: 1) characterise the circulating platelet (PMV) and endothelial-derived MVs (EMVs) responses during exercise and recovery, as well as their arteriovenous dynamics, 2) investigate the potential role of haemodynamic forces on MVs formation in vivo by vascular shear stress manipulations, and 3) explore the putative proliferative, chemotactic and angiogenic potential of exercise-derived MVs upon human vascular endothelial cells in vitro. Chapter 5 of this thesis describes the time-course of MV appearance in response to prolonged cycling, and demonstrates that intravascular [PMV] increases during and after exercise performed in the heavy intensity domain, whereas [EMV] remains unaltered. Moreover, [PMV] during exercise was related to estimates of vascular shear stress and plasma noradrenaline levels. Results from chapter 6 revealed that PMVs increased in the arterial circulation during passive heat stress, and in the arterial as well as venous circulation during short duration very heavy exercise engaging either a large or small muscle mass. The increases in [PMV] were not directly linked to local changes in vascular shear stress through heat stress and exercise, indicating a systemic PMV response. Finally, chapter 7 revealed that exercise-derived MVs supported endothelial proliferation and migration, while displaying pro-angiogenic potential in vitro. In conclusion, results of this thesis provide original information about MV dynamics, by demonstrating that PMV increase systemically in the circulation not only after but during exercise involving a small and large muscle mass. This MV response seems to be modulated by exercise intensity, and is only partially linked to levels of vascular shear stress. Moreover, circulating MVs produced during exercise present stimulatory angiogenic and mitogenic effects upon endothelial cells in vitro, suggesting a novel potential link between vascular adaptation and exercise training.
Description: This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London
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Dept of Life Sciences Theses

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