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Title: Testing the “read-across hypothesis” by investigating the effects of ibuprofen on fish
Authors: Sumpter, JP
Patel, A
Panter, G
Trollope, H
Glennon, Y
Owen, S
Rand-Weaver, M
Keywords: Ibuprofen;Biological read-across;Blood plasma;Prostaglandin E metabolite;Gene expression
Issue Date: 2016
Citation: Chemosphere, 163: pp. 592 - 600, (2016)
Abstract: Human pharmaceuticals present in the environment have the potential to cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. The “read-across hypothesis” stipulates that pharmaceuticals will exhibit similar biological effects across species (e.g. human and fish) if the molecular target has been conserved and the effective drug concentrations are reached (Cmax). We tested this hypothesis by evaluating if ibuprofen, a non-selective inhibitor of prostaglandins and the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, can mimic its primary effect in humans, on fish, at comparable plasma concentrations. The endpoints, “prostaglandin E metabolite” (PGEM) levels and the mRNA expression of COX (ptgs gene), were measured in the gills of control and exposed fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), using enzyme-immunoassay and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Fish were exposed, for 24-72 h, to measured water concentrations of 9 (n= 12), 370 (n= 40) and 470 μg ibuprofen/L (n= 12). Water and blood plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. Results showed that PGEM levels in fish exposed to 370 and 470 μg ibuprofen/L were significantly decreased compared to control fish, when mean plasma ibuprofen concentrations were 1.8 to 5.6-fold below the Cmax. The plasma ibuprofen concentrations and PGEM levels varied greatly between individuals. In fish exposed to 9 μg ibuprofen/L, when the mean plasma ibuprofen concentration was 224-fold below Cmax, no change in PGEM levels was observed. These data provide evidence for the read-across hypothesis, but suggest establishing a direct dose-response between internal plasma and PGEM is difficult, and would require significantly larger numbers of fish to overcome the inter-individual variation.
ISSN: 1879-1298
Appears in Collections:Dept of Life Sciences Research Papers

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