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|Title:||Application of passive seismic to the detection of buried hollows|
|Citation:||14th International Sinkhole Conference, Rochester Minnesota, 5-9 October 2015|
|Abstract:||Pilot studies involving the use of passive seismic techniques in a range of geological settings and applications, e.g., mapping bedrock, studies of soil erosion and Quaternary mapping have shown that it is a versatile, non-invasive and economic technique. This paper presents the findings of three case studies that trialled the use of passive seismic techniques for the detection and characterisation of buried hollows in carbonate rocks, comprising: i) a buried hollow in the Cretaceous Chalk at Ashford Hill in the Kennet Valley, a tributary of the River Thames, UK; ii) buried karst in the foundation excavations for wind turbines in Carboniferous Limestone at Brassington, Wirksworth, Derbyshire, UK, and iii) defining the extent of solution hollows that host terrestrial Miocene deposits, near Friden, Newhaven, Derbyshire, UK. Whilst case studies ii) and iii) are focused on areas of buried dolines, the geological context of the Ashford Hill site is more complex; comprising a deformation hollow with an uplifted “pinnacle” of chalk bedrock at the centre. The data were collected using a (Tromino), a three-component, broadband seismometer to measure background ambient noise (microtremors induced by wind, ocean waves, industrial machinery, road and rail traffic, etc.). The Tromino is small, portable with an operating range of 0.1 Hz to 1,024 Hz and interpreted using proprietary software (Grilla), which subjects the data to Fourier transformation and smoothing. Where possible, estimated shear wave velocities used in the Grilla Software modelling, based on peaks identified on the H/V spectrum, have been calibrated using borehole data or parallel geophysical techniques. In each case, the karst features were defined by Nakamura’s horizontal to vertical (H/V) spectral ratio technique, where microtremors are converted to show impedance contrasts (velocity x density), or a pseudo layered seismic stratigraphy of the near surface along each profile. An additional benefit of the use of this technique is its depth of penetration and potential for defining the structural and lithological context of the hollows, thereby contributing to the process understanding associated with their formation. To this end the technique has helped define discontinuity (fault, joint or bedding) guidance of the hollows.|
|Appears in Collections:||Dept of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering Research Papers|
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