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Title: Students’ perceptions of and loyalty towards internet banking: the case of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom
Authors: AL-Ghamdi, Abdullah
Advisors: Hackney, R
Keywords: Culture percepective;Customer behavior;Online shopping;Banking services
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: Brunel University
Abstract: The contribution of this study based on the development of a cross-cultural universal framework, which is moderated by the culture dimension (uncertainty avoidance) and examines the factors influencing the individuals’ attitudes and behaviour and, ultimately, the individuals’ loyalty towards Internet banking across different countries (KSA and the UK). The study will contribute towards filling the gap in Internet banking literature by: 1) examining customers’ loyalty as a dependent variable of intention; 2) invariant acceptance of customers across the UK and KSA cultures; 3) and integration of the cultural dimension (i.e. uncertainty avoidance) and demographics (i.e. gender and experience) as factors of invariance across the groups. The framework is based on a number of constructs adopted from the validated theories in information systems (IS), psychology and marketing literature perspectives. Specifically from a psychology perspective, using Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs, Attitude, Intention, Subjective Norms, Self-efficacy and Actual Behaviour (i.e. intention towards loyalty) were integrated. From a technological perspective, using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) constructs, Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use were integrated. Besides these constructs, the model also integrates constructs of privacy, security, communication, customers’ experience, Internet banking reputation, trust and loyalty from IS, as well as a marketing perspective. To examine the hypothetical relationships within the conceptual model, this study applied the positivist philosophical approach with quantitative methodology. Out of 1000 questionnaires distributed amongst undergraduate students in UK and KSA, 532 were useable, i.e. 53%. Due to the multilevel stages of the conceptual model, structural equation modelling (SEM), based on analysis of moment structure (AMOS), was applied to analyse the data. In addition, invariance analyses were applied to see the differences across the groups (i.e. moderation effect). Initially, sixteen hypotheses were developed in the model but due to the merger of three constructs (i.e. trust, security and privacy ) into one construct (i.e. trust), and the deletion of three constructs (i.e. communication, customers’ experience and Internet banking reputation) at the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) process, eleven hypotheses were finally retained for examination. The modification indices (MI) suggested three new paths, and hence, the addition of these new hypotheses brought the number up in total to fourteen hypotheses. The results suggest that the conceptualised model was able to fit with the data in both UK and KSA sample. Within the KSA sample, the model explained 45% variance in customer loyalty, but 60% in UK sample. From the path relationships perspectives, out of fourteen hypotheses ten were supported in the KSA and nine were supported in the UK. The results confirm the study’s argument that customer loyalty is the main construct of individuals’ behavioural intention to accept Internet banking. Within specific countries’ context, after behavioural intention, perceived ease of use was a more important predictor of loyalty in the KSA (i.e. b= 0.28); whereas perceived usefulness was a more important predictor of loyalty (i.e. b= 0.27) in the UK. Furthermore, it was noticed that subjective norm towards behavioural intention, perceived usefulness and ease of use was only significant in the KSA sample. The invariance analysis across the countries revealed significant differences between the KSA and the UK for nine hypotheses. Furthermore, invariance analysis also revealed significant differences across the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance (i.e. high and low), and the demographical variable of gender (i.e. male and female). Contrary to this, no difference was found for the demographic variable of experience (i.e. high and low). Based on these results, theoretical and practical implications are advised.
Description: This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University.
Appears in Collections:Business and Management
Brunel Business School Theses

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