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Title: Determination of the thermal characteristic of the ground in Cyprus and their effect on ground heat exchangers
Authors: Pouloupatis, Panayiotis
Advisors: Tassou S
Florides G
Keywords: Geothermal;Ground coupled heat pumps;Borehole heat exchangers
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Brunel University London
Abstract: Since the ancient years, human beings were using holes and caves to protect themselves from weather conditions making it the first known form of exploiting ground’s heat, known as Geothermal Energy. Nowadays, geothermal energy is mainly used for electricity production, space heating and cooling, Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) applications, and many other purposes depending on the morphology of the ground and its temperature. This study presents results of investigations into the evaluation of the thermal properties of the ground in Cyprus. The main objectives were i) to determine the thermal characteristics of the ground in Cyprus, ii) investigate how they affect the sizing and positioning of Ground Heat Exchangers (GHE) and iii) present the results for various ground depths, including a temperature map of the island, as a guide for engineers and specifiers of GCHPs. It was concluded that there is a potential for the efficient exploitation of the thermal properties of the ground in Cyprus for geothermal applications leading to significant savings in power and money as well. Six new boreholes were drilled and two existing ones were used for the investigation and determination of i) the temperature of the ground at various depths, ii) its thermal conductivity, iii) its specific heat and iv) its density. The thermal conductivity was determined by carrying out experiments using the line source method and was found to vary in the range between 1.35 and 2.1 W/mK. It was also observed that the thermal conductivity is strongly affected by the degree of saturation of the ground. The temperature of the undisturbed ground in the 8 borehole locations was recorded monthly for a period of 1 year. The investigations showed that the surface zone reaches a depth of 0.25 m and the shallow zone 7 to 8 m. The undisturbed ground temperature in the deep zone was measured to be in the range of 18.3 °C to 23.6 °C and is strongly dependent on the soil type. Since the ground temperature is a vital parameter in ground thermal applications, the temperature of the ground in locations that no information is available was predicted using Artificial Neural Networks and the temperature map of the island at depths of 20 m, 50 m and 100 m was generated. Data obtained at the location of each borehole were used for the training of the network. Data for the sizing of GHEs based on the ground properties of Cyprus were presented in an easily accessible form so that they can be used as a guide for preliminary system sizing calculations. With the aid of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software the capacity of the GHEs in each location and the optimum distance between them was estimated. Additionally, the long term temperature variation of the ground was investigated. For the first time since a limited study in the 1970’s, a research focusing on the determination and presentation of the thermal properties of the ground in Cyprus has been carried out. Additionally, the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is an innovative approach for the prediction of data at locations where no information is available. The publication of this information not only contributes to knowledge locally but also internationally as it enables comparison with other countries with similar climatic conditions to be carried out.
Description: This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London.
Appears in Collections:Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Dept of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering Theses

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