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|Title:||The role of ultrasonic treatment in refining the as-cast grain structure during the solidification of an Al–2Cu alloy|
|Keywords:||Grain refinment;Solidification;Ultrasonic treatment;Growth from melt;Alloys;Metals|
|Citation:||Journal of Crystal Growth, 408: 119 - 124, ( 15 December 2014)|
|Abstract:||The effect of Ultrasonic Treatment (UT) over selected temperature ranges during cooling and solidification of an Al–2Cu alloy melt on the grain structure and cooling behaviour of the alloy has been investigated using a molybdenum sonotrode introduced without preheating. UT was applied over various temperature ranges before, during and after the nucleation of primary aluminium grains.It was found that ultrasonic grain refinement was achieved only when UT was applied from more than 20 °C above the liquidus temperature until below the liquidus temperature after nucleation has occurred. Applying UT from 40 °C or 60 °C above the liquidus to just above the liquidus brings the melt to a condition that favours nucleation,survival of the nucleated grains and their subsequent transport throughout the melt. Continuing to apply UT beyond the liquidus for a short time enhances both nucleation and convection thereby ensuring the formation of a fine, uniform equiaxed grain size throughout the casting.The lack of grain refinement when UT was applied from 20 °C above the liquidus temperature or from temperatures below the liquidus temperature is attributed to the formation of a strong solidified layer on the sonotrode which hinders the effective transmission of ultrasonic irradiation into the liquid metal. The application of a preheated sonotrode showed that formation of a solid layer can be prevented by preheating the sonotrode to 285 °C. Thus,an appropriate amount of superheat of the liquid metal or sufficient reheating of the sonotrode is necessary for ultrasonic grain refinement when a sonotrode is introduced into the melt.|
|Appears in Collections:||Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology (BCAST)|
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