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Title: The emerging role of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in neurodegenerative diseases
Authors: Al-Mahdawi, S
Virmouni, SA
Pook, MA
Keywords: 5-hydroxymethylcytosine;Alzheimer's disease;Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis;Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome;Friedreich ataxia;Huntington's disease;Parkinson's disease
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation
Citation: Frontiers in Neuroscience, 8: (05 December 2014)
Abstract: DNA methylation primarily occurs within human cells as a 5-methylcytosine (5mC) modification of the cytosine bases in CpG dinucleotides. 5mC has proven to be an important epigenetic mark that is involved in the control of gene transcription for processes such as development and differentiation. However, recent studies have identified an alternative modification, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which is formed by oxidation of 5mC by ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes. The overall levels of 5hmC in the mammalian genome are approximately 10% of 5mC levels, although higher levels have been detected in tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). The functions of 5hmC are not yet fully known, but evidence suggests that 5hmC may be both an intermediate product during the removal of 5mC by passive or active demethylation processes and also an epigenetic modification in its own right, regulating chromatin or transcriptional factors involved in processes such as neurodevelopment or environmental stress response. This review highlights our current understanding of the role that 5hmC plays in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), Huntington's disease (HD), and Parkinson's disease (PD).
Description: Copyright © 2014 Al-Mahdawi, Anjomani Virmouni and Pook. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund.
ISSN: 1662-4548
Appears in Collections:Brunel OA Publishing Fund
Dept of Life Sciences Research Papers

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