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Title: Existence and Stability of a Spike in the Central Component for a Consumer Chain Model
Authors: Winter, M
Wei, J
Keywords: Consumer chain;Schnakenberg type kinetics
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Springer
Citation: Journal of Dynamics and Differential Equations, 27: 1141 -1171, (2015)
Abstract: We study a three-component consumer chain model which is based on Schnakenberg type kinetics. In this model there is one consumer feeding on the producer and a second consumer feeding on the first consumer. This means that the first consumer (central component) plays a hybrid role: it acts both as consumer and producer. The model is an extension of the Schnakenberg model suggested in \cite{gm,schn1} for which there is only one producer and one consumer. It is assumed that both the producer and second consumer diffuse much faster than the central component. We construct single spike solutions on an interval for which the profile of the first consumer is that of a spike. The profiles of the producer and the second consumer only vary on a much larger spatial scale due to faster diffusion of these components. It is shown that there exist two different single spike solutions if the feed rates are small enough: a large-amplitude and a small-amplitude spike. We study the stability properties of these solutions in terms of the system parameters. We use a rigorous analysis for the linearized operator around single spike solutions based on nonlocal eigenvalue problems. The following result is established: If the time-relaxation constants for both producer and second consumer vanish, the large-amplitude spike solution is stable and the small-amplitude spike solution is unstable. We also derive results on the stability of solutions when these two time-relaxation constants are small. We show a new effect: if the time-relaxation constant of the second consumer is very small, the large-amplitude spike solution becomes unstable. To the best of our knowledge this phenomenon has not been observed before for the stability of spike patterns. It seems that this behavior is not possible for two-component reaction-diffusion systems but that at least three components are required. Our main motivation to study this system is mathematical since the novel interaction of a spike in the central component with two other components results in new types of conditions for the existence and stability of a spike. This model is realistic if several assumptions are made: (i) cooperation of consumers is prevalent in the system, (ii) the producer and the second consumer diffuse much faster than the first consumer, and (iii) there is practically an unlimited pool of producer. The first assumption has been proven to be correct in many types of consumer groups or populations, the second assumption occurs if the central component has a much smaller mobility than the other two, the third assumption is realistic if the consumers do not feel the impact of the limited amount of producer due to its large quantity. This chain model plays a role in population biology, where consumer and producer are often called predator and prey. This system can also be used as a model for a sequence of irreversible autocatalytic reactions in a container which is in contact with a well-stirred reservoir.
ISSN: 1572-9222
Appears in Collections:Dept of Mathematics Research Papers

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