Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://buratest.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/932
Title: Confirmatory factor analysis of the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) among adolescent athletes
Authors: Lane, A
Harwood, C
Terry, P
Karageorghis, CI
Keywords: Measurement; Model testing; Psychological skills; Structural equations
Issue Date: 2004
Publisher: Taylor and Francis Ltd
Citation: Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(9): 803-812(10), Sep 2004
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to examine the factorial validity of the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS; Thomas et al., 1999) among adolescent athletes using confirmatory factor analysis. The TOPS was designed to assess eight psychological strategies used in competition (i.e. activation, automaticity, emotional control, goal-setting, imagery, negative thinking, relaxation and self-talk,) and eight used in practice (the same strategies except negative thinking is replaced by attentional control). National-level athletes (n = 584) completed the 64-item TOPS during training camps. Fit indices provided partial support for the overall measurement model for the competition items (robust comparative fit index = 0.92, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.88, root mean square error of approximation = 0.05) but minimal support for the training items (robust comparative fit index = 0.86, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.81, root mean square error of approximation = 0.06). For the competition items, the automaticity, goal-setting, relaxation and self-talk scales showed good fit, whereas the activation, emotional control, imagery and negative thinking scales did not. For the practice items, the attentional control, emotional control, goal-setting, imagery and self-talk scales showed good fit, whereas the activation, automaticity and relaxation scales did not. Overall, it appears that the factorial validity of the TOPS for use with adolescents is questionable at present and further development is required.
URI: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/
http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/932
Appears in Collections:Sport
Dept of Life Sciences Research Papers

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