Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://buratest.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/9231
Title: Whole home exercise intervention for depression in older care home residents (the OPERA study): A process evaluation
Authors: Ellard, DR
Thorogood, M
Underwood, M
Seale, C
Taylor, SJC
Keywords: Cluster randomised controlled trial;Culture change;Depression;Elderly residential care;Exercise;Process evaluation
Issue Date: 2014
Citation: BMC Medicine, 12:1 (3 January 2014)
Abstract: Background: The 'Older People's Exercise intervention in Residential and nursing Accommodation' (OPERA) cluster randomised trial evaluated the impact of training for care home staff together with twice-weekly, physiotherapist-led exercise classes on depressive symptoms in care home residents, but found no effect. We report a process evaluation exploring potential explanations for the lack of effect.Methods: The OPERA trial included over 1,000 residents in 78 care homes in the UK. We used a mixed methods approach including quantitative data collected from all homes. In eight case study homes, we carried out repeated periods of observation and interviews with residents, care staff and managers. At the end of the intervention, we held focus groups with OPERA research staff. We reported our first findings before the trial outcome was known.Results: Homes showed large variations in activity at baseline and throughout the trial. Overall attendance rate at the group exercise sessions was low (50%). We considered two issues that might explain the negative outcome: whether the intervention changed the culture of the homes, and whether the residents engaged with the intervention. We found low levels of staff training, few home champions for the intervention and a culture that prioritised protecting residents from harm over encouraging activity. The trial team delivered 3,191 exercise groups but only 36% of participants attended at least 1 group per week and depressed residents attended significantly fewer groups than those who were not depressed. Residents were very frail and therefore most groups only included seated exercises.Conclusions: The intervention did not change the culture of the homes and, in the case study homes, activity levels did not change outside the exercise groups. Residents did not engage in the exercise groups at a sufficient level, and this was particularly true for those with depressive symptoms at baseline. The physical and mental frailty of care home residents may make it impossible to deliver a sufficiently intense exercise intervention to impact on depressive symptoms. © 2014 Ellard et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Description: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
URI: http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/9231
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-12-1
ISSN: 1741-7015
Appears in Collections:Sociology
Dept of Social Sciences Media and Communications Research Papers

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